This book is about the history and the current state of the art in the exciting field of cosmology -- the science about the Universe as a whole, which is guaranteed to attract the attention of a wide range of readers. It mostly aims to explain the main ideas of modern cosmology: the expanding Universe, its creation in a Big Bang, its evolution, characteristics, and structure, as well as issues -- dark matter and dark energy, black holes and other exotic objects etc. It also answers most frequently asked questions about cosmology.

How the Universe Works stands between a popular science book and a textbook, acting as a sort of a bridge across the great chasm separating popular science from true science. It can be also used as an introductory textbook for undergraduate students. It is also suitable for the non-experts in cosmology who wish to have an overview of the current state of the field. It is different from most popular science books because it avoids cutting corners in explanations and contains justification for various assumptions or estimations made in cosmology. It does not hide problems faced by modern cosmology as well as issues the community has no consensus about. It also does not try to pass hypotheses for established theories, which is not uncommon in scholarly articles.

]]>Based on the authors' years of extensive experience, this is an authoritative overview of Wide Bandgap (WBG) device characterization. It provides essential tools to assist researchers, advanced students and practicing engineers in performing both static and dynamic characterization of WBG devices, particularly those based on using silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) power semiconductors. The book presents practical considerations for real applications, and includes examples of applying the described methodology.

]]>This book provides a comprehensive presentation of the concepts, properties, and applications of classical materials. It also provides the first unified treatment for the broad subject of classical materials. The authors use a fundamental approach to define the structure and properties of a wide range of solids on the basis of the local chemical bonding and atomic order present in the material. Emphasizing the physical and chemical origins of different material properties, this important volume focuses on the most technologically important materials being utilized and developed by scientists and engineers.

This new book:

* Provides a collection of chapters that highlight some important areas of current interest in polymer products and chemical processes

*Focuses on topics with more advanced methods

* Emphasizes precise mathematical development and actual experimental details

* Analyzes theories to formulate and prove the physicochemical principles

* Provides an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the present state of the art of complex materials

* Familiarizes the reader with new aspects of the techniques used in the examination of polymers, including chemical, physicochemical, and purely physical methods of examination

* Describes the types of techniques now available to the chemist and technician and discusses their capabilities, limitations, and applications

This book presents peer-reviewed chapters and survey articles on review, research, and development in the fields of classical materials. The wide coverage makes this book an excellent reference book for researchers and graduate students on the subject. The new topics covered in this book will be an excellent resource for industries and academic researchers as well.

]]>Shelving Guide: Electrical Engineering

Since the 1980s more than 100 books on the finite element method have been published, making this numerical method the most popular. The features of the finite element method gained worldwide popularity due to its flexibility for simulating not only any kind of physical phenomenon described by a set of differential equations, but also for the possibility of simulating non-linearity and time-dependent studies. Although a number of high-quality books cover all subjects in engineering problems, none of them seem to make this method simpler and easier to understand.

This book was written with the goal of simplifying the mathematics of the finite element method for electromagnetic students and professionals relying on the finite element method for solving design problems. Filling a gap in existing literature that often us es complex mathematical formulas, Electromagnetics through the Finite Element Method presents a new mathematical approach based on only direct integration of Maxwell's equation. This book makes an original, scholarly contribution to our current understanding of this important numerical method.

]]>Cluster Ion-Solid Interactions: Theory, Simulation, and Experimentprovides an overview of various concepts in cluster physics and related topics in physics, including the fundamentals and tools underlying novel cluster ion beam technology. The material is based on the author's highly regarded courses at Kyoto University, Purdue University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute as well as his research results on cluster ion beam applications at Kyoto University.

The author introduces the basic principles of statistical physics and thermodynamics before covering applications, experimental justifications, and practical implementations. He describes classical nucleation theory and explains the drawbacks of this theory, showing how accurate modeling and simulations are necessary to justify theoretical approaches and simplifications.

]]>Melt quenching--the method of quenching from the liquid state--provides new opportunities for producing advanced materials with a unique combination of properties. In the process of melt quenching, attainment of critical cooling rates can produce specific structural states of the material. Nanocrystalline materials produced by melt quenching are classified as nanomaterials not only by their nanoscale structural elements but also by the effects these elements have on the properties of the material.

The result of 30 years of research, Melt-Quenched Nanocrystals presents a detailed and systematic analysis of the nanostructured state formed in the process of melt quenching and subsequent thermal and deformation effects. It covers the metallurgical and mechanical properties of nanomaterials, focusing particularly on properties derived from nanocrystals and their agglomeration. The text introduces four different types of nanocrystals that can be produced by melt quenching, each having different structures and properties:

The possible uses for these materials are extensive, with applications from coatings to biological compatibility. The final section of the book presents a discussion of existing and future applications of nanocrystals produced by different melt-quenching methods.

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