Drought Challenges: Livelihood Implications in Developing Countries, Volume Two, provides an understanding of the occurrence and impacts of droughts for developing countries and vulnerable sub-groups, such as women and pastoralists. It presents tools for assessing vulnerabilities, introduces individual policies to combat the effects of droughts, and highlights the importance of integrated multi-sectoral approaches and drought networks at various levels. Currently, there are few books on the market that address the growing need for knowledge on these cross-cutting issues. As drought can occur anywhere, the systemic connections between droughts and livelihoods are a key factor in development in many dryland and agriculturally-dependent nations.

Connects the biophysical, social, economic, policy and institutional aspects of droughts across multiple regions in developing world Analyzes policy linkages between government agencies, public institutions, NGOs, the private sector and communities Includes a discussion of gender dimensions of drought and its impacts Presents a multi-sectoral perspective, including the human dimensions of drought in developing countries]]>The shadowing function is an important element in the simulation and calculation of how electromagnetic waves scatter at randomly rough surfaces. Its derivation and use is an active, interdisciplinary area of research with practical applications in fields such as radar, optics, acoustics, geoscience, computer graphics and remote sensing.

This book addresses the general problem of the derivation of the shadowing function from randomly rough surfaces. The authors present an overview of theory and advances of this topic by detailing recent progress. Firstly, the simpler problems are investigated (monostatic case - 1D surface - one reflection) progressing in difficulty to more complicated problems (bistatic case - 2D surface - multiple reflections). In addition, the authors focus on the introduction of the simplifying assumptions to derive closed-form expressions of the shadowing function and quantify their impact on the accuracy of the resulting models. Applications of the shadowing function in problems encountered in physics are also addressed.

The problem of the derivation of the shadowing function from a rough surface is at the boundary between several scientific communities, each with its terminology. This book makes the link between these different communities and will help the reader to understand the theoretical aspects of this problem while giving practical applications.

]]>At the heart of modern power electronics converters are power semiconductor switching devices. The emergence of wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor devices, including silicon carbide and gallium nitride, promises power electronics converters with higher efficiency, smaller size, lighter weight, and lower cost than converters using the established silicon-based devices. However, WBG devices pose new challenges for converter design and require more careful characterization, in particular due to their fast switching speed and more stringent need for protection.

Characterization of Wide Bandgap Power Semiconductor Devices presents comprehensive methods with examples for the characterization of this important class of power devices. After an introduction, the book covers pulsed static characterization; junction capacitance characterization; fundamentals of dynamic characterization; gate drive for dynamic characterization; layout design and parasitic management; protection design for double pulse test; measurement and data processing for dynamic characterization; cross-talk consideration; impact of three-phase system; and topology considerations.

]]>Slotted waveguide antenna arrays are used in radar, communication and remote sensing systems for high frequencies. They have linear polarization with low cross-polarization and low losses but can also be designed for dual polarizations and phase steered beams.

Slotted Waveguide Array Antennas is the first comprehensive treatment of these antennas from an engineering perspective. It provides readers with a thorough foundation in applicable theories as well as hands-on instruction for practical analysis, design, manufacture and use of important types of waveguide slot arrays. It goes beyond some of the commonly discussed topics and ventures into areas that include higher order mode coupling and edge effects; performance optimisation in terms of bandwidth and pattern performance and manufacturing tolerances.

With specific examples of waveguide array designs, accompanied by detailed illustrations and antenna characteristics, the book is a must-have reference for engineers involved in antenna design, development and applications.

]]>This book presents the theory of adjoint sensitivity analysis for high frequency applications through time-domain electromagnetic simulations in MATLAB®. This theory enables the efficient estimation of the sensitivities of an arbitrary response with respect to all parameters in the considered problem. These sensitivities are required in many applications including gradient-based optimization, surrogate-based modeling, statistical analysis, and yield analysis.

Using the popular FDTD method, the book shows how wideband sensitivities can be efficiently estimated for different types of materials and structures, and includes plenty of well explained MATLAB® examples to help readers absorb the content more easily and to make the theory more understandable to the broadest possible audience. Topics covered include a review of FDTD and an introduction to adjoint sensitivity analysis; the adjoint variable method for frequency-independent constitutive parameters; sensitivity analysis for frequency-dependent objective functions; transient adjoint sensitivity analysis; adjoint sensitivity analysis with dispersive materials; adjoint sensitivity analysis of anisotropic structures; nonlinear adjoint sensitivity analysis; second-order adjoint sensitivities; and advanced topics.

]]>This advanced research monograph is devoted to the Wiener-Hopf technique, a function-theoretic method that has found applications in a variety of fields, most notably in analytical studies of diffraction and scattering of waves. It provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject and covers the latest developments, illustrates the wide range of possible applications for this method, and includes an extensive outline of the most powerful analytical tool for the solution of diffraction problems.

This will be an invaluable compendium for scientists, engineers and applied mathematicians, and will serve as a benchmark reference in the field of theoretical electromagnetism for the foreseeable future.

]]>Electromagnetic Field Standards and Exposure Systems covers the broader fields of measurements in telecommunications, radio navigation, radio astronomy, bioscience, and free ranging EM radiation and helps to develop the following measurement standards;

proper calibration of the measuring instrument external environmental factors that affect accuracy competence and training of the instrument operator]]>This book begins with an essential background discussion of the many applications and drawbacks for paraxial beams, which is required in the treatment of the complex space theory of spatially localized electromagnetic waves. The author highlights that there is a need obtain exact full-wave solutions that reduce to the paraxial beams in the appropriate limit. Complex Space Source Theory of Spatially Localized Electromagnetic Waves treats the exact full-wave generalizations of all the basic types of paraxial beam solutions. These are developed by the use of Fourier and Bessel transform techniques and the complex space source theory of spatially localized electromagnetic waves is integrated as a branch of Fourier optics. Two major steps in the theory are described as: 1) the systematic derivation of the appropriate virtual source in the complex space that produces the required full wave from the paraxial beam solution and 2) the determination of the actual secondary source in the physical space that is equivalent to the virtual source in the complex space.

]]>This book is devoted to the specific problems of electromagnetic field (EMF) measurements in the near field and to the analysis of the main factors which impede accuracy in these measurements. It focuses on careful and accurate design of systems to measure in the near field based on a thorough understanding of the fundamental engineering principles and on an analysis of the likely system errors. Beginning with a short introduction to electromagnetic fields with an emphasis on the near field, it then presents methods of EMF measurements in near field conditions. It details the factors limiting measurement accuracy including internal ones (thermal stability, frequency response, dynamic characteristics, susceptibility) and external ones (field integration, mutual couplings between a probe and primary and secondary EMF sources, directional pattern deformations). It continues with a discussion on how to gauge the parameters declared by an EMF meter manufacturer and simple methods for testing these parameters. It also details how designers of measuring equipment can reconsider the near field when designing and testing, as well as how users can exploit the knowledge within the book to ensure their tests and results contain the most accurate measurements possible. The SciTech Publishing Series on Electromagnetic Compatibility provides a continuously growing body of knowledge in the latest development and best practices in electromagnetic compatibility engineering. This series provides specialist and non-specialist professionals and students practical knowledge that is thoroughly grounded in relevant theory.

]]>This book updates and expands the editor's acclaimed Electrical Resistivity Handbook , bringing together advances in the field over the last two decades. In this period, much has been achieved in the fields of new materials and superconductivity.

This new volume provides a comprehensive compilation of experimental data in graphical form of the resistivity/resistance of over 1000 elements, compounds and alloys in three sections. The first section deals with resistivity as a function of temperature, the second section deals with resistivity as a function of temperature and pressure, whilst the third deals with the normalised resistance of materials as a function of temperature and/or pressure.

]]>Lightning research is an interdisciplinary subject where several branches of engineering and physics converge. Lightning Electromagnetics is a book that caters for the needs of both physicists and engineers. It provides: The physicist with information on how to simulate: the charge generation in thunderclouds, different discharge processes in air that ultimately lead to a lightning flash, and the mechanism through which energetic radiation in the form of X-rays and Gamma rays are produced by lightning flashes; The power engineer with several numerical tools to study the interaction of lightning flashes with power transmission and distribution systems; The telecommunication engineer with numerical procedures with which to calculate the electromagnetic fields generated by lightning flashes and their interactions with overhead and underground telecommunication systems; The electromagnetic specialist with the basic theory necessary to simulate the propagation of lightning electromagnetic fields over the surface of the Earth; The atmospheric scientist with numerical procedures to quantify interactions between lightning flashes and the Earth's atmosphere, including the production of NOx by lightning flashes occurring in the atmosphere. This book also contains a chapter on the stimulation of visual phenomena in humans by electromagnetic fields of lightning flashes, which is essential reading for those who are interested in ball lightning.

]]>Segmenting the environment surrounding an autonomous vehicle into coherently moving regions is a vital first step towards intelligent autonomous navigation. Without this temporal information, navigation becomes a simple obstacle avoidance scheme that is inappropriate in highly dynamic environments such as roadways and places where many people congregate.

The book begins by looking at the problem of motion estimation from biological, algorithmic and digital perspectives. It goes on to describe an algorithm that fits with the motion processing model, and hardware and software constraints. This algorithm is based on the optical flow constraint equation and introduces range information to resolve the depth-velocity ambiguity, which is critical for autonomous navigation. Finally, implementation of the algorithm in digital hardware is described in detail, covering both the initial motion processing model and the chosen hardware platforms, and the global functional structure of the system.

]]>The rheological properties of magnetorheological (MR) materials, such as their viscosity and dynamic modulus, can be tuned or controlled by changing the intensity of the magnetic field using appropriate control schemes. Thanks to their robustness, performance and smart properties, numerous studies have been undertaken on the development of new MR materials, and microscopic and macroscopic modelling approaches. Novel applications include engine mounts and clutch systems in the automotive industry, shock absorbing safety devices for cockpit seats in aerospace, and shock absorption from movement in semi-active human prosthetic legs.

This book introduces magnetorheological fluids and elastomers, and explores their material properties, related modelling techniques and applications in turn. The book offers insights into the relationships between the properties and characterisation of MR materials and their current and future applications, making it useful reading for researchers, engineers and graduate students who work in the field of smart materials and structures.

]]>Fundamentals of Electromagnetics with MATLAB ® Second Edition equips you for your journey into learning the theory and the application of electromagnetic fields and waves.

]]>Improvements in the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics (including antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications) can be achieved through the use of 'high-order' techniques. This book outlines these techniques by presenting high-order basis functions, explaining their use, and illustrating their performance. The specific basis functions under consideration were developed by the authors, and include scalar and vector functions for use with equations such as the vector Helmholtz equation and the electric field integral equation.

The book starts by considering the approximation of scalar functions, and explores the error in some of those representations. Singular functions (those that are unbounded) are also considered, since these often arise in practical EM problems. The authors then discuss the approximation of vector functions, and summarize the various classes of vector basis functions that have been used by the professional community. Following this, they present higher-order basis functions for the most common cell shapes used in finite element analysis procedures. Finally, they consider some of the implementation details associated with the use of these functions for integral equation/method of moments formulations and differential equation/finite element method approaches.

This book provides an essential introduction to these techniques for researchers, graduate students and practicing professionals in the discipline of computational electromagnetics.

]]>Radar interferometers provide a cost-effective radar architecture to achieve enhanced angle accuracy for enhanced target tracking. The objective of this book is to quantify interferometer angle estimation accuracy by developing a general understanding of various radar interferometer architectures and presenting a comprehensive understanding of the effects of radar-based measurement errors on angle-of-arrival estimation. As such this book is primarily directed toward tracking radars but will also discuss imaging applications as well.

]]>Physics and Technology of Heterojunction Devices brings together the physics of engineering aspects of heterojunction semiconductor devices in one volume.

The book draws on the knowledge of various experienced academics, and covers aspects of the physics of heterojunctions, resonant tunnelling effects in semiconductor heterojunction devices, characterisation of heterojunctions, high electron mobility transistors, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and heterostructures in semiconductor lasers.

This valuable text is suitable for post-graduate device and electronic circuit engineers, and final year undergraduates.

]]>The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) is an efficient method of analysis and design of wave fields. It is widely used in antenna synthesis in microwave, millimetre and infra-red bands, in circuit engineering and laser system design. It is a convenient tool for tackling the problems of wave propagation and scattering at bodies of complex shape. The method combines the simplicity and physical transparency of geometrical optics with high computational accuracy over a wide dynamic range of quantities analysed. The advantage of GTD is particularly pronounced in applications where the wavelength is small compared with the typical size of scatterers, i.e. in situations where the known analytical techniques - variational calculus and numerical analysis - are no longer applicable.

This book painstakingly systematises the ideas underlying GTD, gives a detailed explanation of the modern state of the theory within the bounds of its validity, and elucidates its relationships with other popular asymptotic theories - the methods of physical optics and edge waves.

The book is designed for scientists, engineers and postgraduate students involved in electromagnetics, radio engineering and optical system design.

]]>The temperature on earth varies over a wide range whereas man can only work comfortably in a quite narrow temperature range that has to be artificially maintained. In addition, many industries have extensive requirements for temperature control. Thus control engineers are called upon very frequently to design temperature control loops.

A general knowledge of control engineering is of course useful in designing temperature control loops.However, temperature control has some special features:

(i) asymmetries caused by the usually differing mechanisms of heating and cooling (ii) complex nonlinear heat-transfer effects (iii) highly application-dependent measurement problems.The intention of this book is to treat the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control, and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution, at a level suitable for engineering and science undergraduate and postgraduate students, and in a manner designed to make the book valuable to practising engineers. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful.

The philosophy of the book is a compromise between fundamentals and practical guidelines. It is the author's firm belief that it is highly desirable to obtain a good insight into theoretical fundamentals (deeper than can be justified on grounds of immediate utility) before embarking on practical applications. The aim has been to produce a practically oriented text within a firm theoretical outline.

The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations. There are chapters on heat sources, commercially available controllers, temperature control in buildings and energy conservation. The book ends with an appendix that rapidly surveys the underpinning thermodynamic theory.

]]>This book describes new, highly effective, rigorous analysis methods for electromagnetic wave problems. Examples of their application to the mathematical modelling of micros trip lines, corrugated flexible waveguides, horn antennas, complex-shaped cavity resonators and periodic structures are considered.

Special attention is paid to energy dissipation effects. Various physical models and methods of analysis of dissipation are described and approximate formulas and computer-based calculation results for dissipation characteristics are given and compared with experimental data. Ways of decreasing dissipation in waveguides and resonators are discussed.

The book will be of interest to physicists and engineers working on the theory and design of microwave and millimetre-wave components and devices. Designers in microwave engineering will find here all the information they need for choosing the correct waveguide (resonator) for a stipulated dissipation characteristic. The numerical algorithms and formulas can be directly applied to CAD systems. The book is also relevant for students of electromagnetism and microwave circuits.

]]>This book is the first to present the application of parabolic equation methods in electromagnetic wave propagation. These powerful numerical techniques have become the dominant tool for assessing clear-air and terrain effects on radiowave propagation and are growing increasingly popular for solving scattering problems.

The book gives the mathematical background to parabolic equation modelling and describes simple parabolic equation algorithms before progressing to more advanced topics such as domain truncation, the treatment of impedance boundaries and the implementation of very fast hybrid methods combining ray-tracing and parabolic equation techniques. The last three chapters are devoted to scattering problems, with application to propagation in urban environments and to radar cross section computation.

This book will prove useful to scientists and engineers who require accurate assessment of diffraction and ducting on radio and radar systems. Its self-contained approach should also make it particularly suitable for graduate students and other researchers interested in radiowave propagation scattering.

]]>The cross-section method is an analytical tool used in the design of components required for low-loss, highly efficient transmission of electromagnetic waves in nonuniform waveguides. When the waveguide dimensions are large compared with the wavelength, a fully three-dimensional analysis employing modern numerical methods based on finite element, finite difference, finite integration or transmission line matrix formalisms is practically impossible and the cross-section method is the only feasible analysis technique.

The method is not limited to oversized tubular metallic waveguides, but is employed intensively in areas such as fibre optic communications, antenna synthesis, natural waveguides (submarine, tropospheric and seismic), microwave radio links (Earth or space) and the design of absorbing surfaces and it may also be applied to many acoustic problems. The application of the method in special cases such as cut-off and resonant frequencies is covered, as well as the design of oversized waveguide components such as tapers, bends, polarisers and mode converters. Many useful formulas are given for the practical layout of such transmission line components. The use of computers in the application of the method and problems related to numerical analysis are also covered.

]]>Electrodynamic Theory of Superconductors is the first book of its kind. It gives a unified and comprehensive theoretical treatment of electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical phenomena in superconductors. Basic concepts and principles in continuum electrodynamics are introduced, with particular emphasis on methodology. Electrodynamic models are developed to study magnetoelastic and thermoelastic superconductors. The author also introduces phenomenological London theory, Cinzburg-Landau theory, electrodynamic models for superconducting thin films, AC losses and Josephson junctions, and BCS microscopic theory of superconductivity. This book can be used as a post graduate level text and as a reference book for researchers and engineers working in the field of applied superconductivity and related areas.

]]>Open resonators, open waveguides and open diffraction gratings are used extensively in modern millimetre and submillimetre technology, spectroscopy and radio engineering. The physical principles of open electrodynamic structures are different from those of closed ones because of radiation loss, edges, multiconnected cross-sections and the need to take into account the behaviour of electromagnetic fields at infinity. The eigenoscillation and eigenwave spectra become complex, there are additional demands on the energy relations and the statements of spectral problems change.

In this book the physical processes in open electrodynamic structures are analysed using a specially constructed spectral theory. The basic concept is that physical processes are observed at real frequencies, and continuation to the complex domain is considered as a mathematical method. The data obtained at complex frequencies give essential information about 'real' solutions at real frequencies. The approach developed allows not only the egular but a variety of anomalous dispersion laws and effects to be investigated.

Written by two authorities in the field of mathematical modelling, the book should be of interest to all scientists and engineers concerned with modern methods of analytical solution of electromagnetic problems in open domains, as well as those studying theoretical electromagnetics.

]]>Lord Kelvin (William Thomson), arguably Britain's most eminent scientist after Newton, spent much of his life in work which led to the development of today's electrical units and standards. Despite his influence, there are few biographies of stature (largely due to the abstruse nature of much of his technical research). This treatment concentrates upon his work in three phases; discovery of the fundamental concepts and coding them into universal laws, leading the adoption of the metric system, and securing worldwide use of units and standards (now the IEC system).

]]>This extremely valuable learning resource is for students of electromagnetics and those who wish to refresh and solidify their understanding of its challenging applications. Problem-solving drills help develop confidence, but few textbooks offer the answers, never mind the complete solutions to their chapter exercises. In this text, noted author Professor Syed Nasar has divided the book's problems into topic areas similar to a textbook and presented a wide array of problems, followed immediately by their solutions.

]]>This book is an essential resource for researchers involved in designing antennas and RCS calculations. It is also useful for students studying high frequency diffraction techniques. It contains basic original ideas of the Physical Theory of Diffraction (PTD), examples of its practical application, and its validation by the mathematical theory of diffraction. The derived analytic expressions are convenient for numerical calculations and clearly illustrate the physical structure of the scattered field. The text's key topics include: Theory of diffraction at black bodies introduces the Shadow Radiation, a fundamental component of the scattered field; RCS of finite bodies of revolution-cones, paraboloids, etc.; models of construction elements for aircraft and missiles; scheme for measurement of that part of a scattered field which is radiated by the diffraction (so-called nonuniform) currents induced on scattering objects; development of the parabolic equation method for investigation of edge-diffraction; and a new exact and asymptotic solutions in the strip diffraction problems, including scattering at an open resonator.

]]>This book is a systematic and detailed exposition of different analytical techniques used in studying two of the canonical problems, the wave scattering by wedges or cones with impedance boundary conditions. It is the first reference on novel, highly efficient analytical-numerical approaches for wave diffraction by impedance wedges or cones. This text includes calculations of the diffraction or excitation coefficients, including their uniform versions, for the diffracted waves from the edge of the wedge or from the vertex of the cone; study of the far-field behavior in diffraction by impedance wedges or cones, reflected waves, space waves from the singular points of the boundary (from edges or tips), and surface waves; and the applicability of the reported solution procedures and formulae to existing software packages designed for solving real-world high-frequency problems encountered in antenna, wave propagation, and radar cross section. This book is for researchers in wave phenomena physics, radio, optics and acoustics engineers, applied mathematicians and specialists in mathematical physics and specialists in quantum scattering of many particles.

]]>Michael Faraday (1791-1867) was one of the most important men of science in nineteenth century Britain. His discoveries of electromagnetic rotations (1821) and electro-magnetic induction (1831) laid the foundations of the modern electrical industry. His discovery of the magneto-optical effect and diamagnetism (1845) led him to formulate the field theory of electro-magnetism, which forms one of the cornerstones of modern physics, and is one of the subjects covered in this volume.

These and a whole host of other fundamental discoveries in physics and chemistry together with his lecturing for the Royal Institution, his work for the state (including Trinity House), his religious beliefs and his lack of mathematical ability, make Faraday one of the most fascinating scientists ever.

All these aspects of his life and work, and others such as his illnesses, are reflected in his correspondence. This volume, in which nearly two thirds of the letters are previously unpublished, covers 1849 and the first half of the 1850s. Topics covered in this volume include Faraday's extensive work on terrestrial and atmospheric magnetism, the beginning of the electrification of lighthouses, his work on the theory of telegraphic retardation, his advice to various government departments on the prosecution of the war against Russia, his possible second (and thus final) exclusion from the Sandemanian Church and the controversy over his views on table turning.

Major correspondents in this volume include the Astronomer Royal G.B. Airy, the Irish chemist Thomas Andrews, the Professor of Natural Philosophy at Glasgow University William Thomson, the Secretary of the Royal Institution John Barlow, the physician Henry Bence Jones, the Genevan savant and politician August De La Rive, the French chemist and politician J.B. Dumas, the mathematician Charles Babbage, the new Professor of Natural Philosophy at the Royal Institution John Tyndall, the engineer I.K. Brunel, the philanthropist Angela Burdett Coutts, the lawyer and natural philosopher William Robert Grove, the assistant secretary of the Royal Institution and co-religionist Benjamin Vincent, the Secretary of Trinity House Jacob Herbert, the German mathematician Julius Plucker, the director of the 'magnetic crusade' and Royal Society officer Edward Sabine, the Swiss chemist Christian Schoenbein and the Cambridge philosopher William Whewell.

]]>Michael Faraday (1791-1867) was one of the most important men of science in nineteenth century Britain. His discoveries of electromagnetic rotations (1821) and electro-magnetic induction (1831) laid the foundations of the modern electrical industry. His discovery of the magneto-optical effect and diamagnetism (1845) led him to formulate the field theory of electro-magnetism, which forms one of the cornerstones of modern physics.

These and a whole host of other fundamental discoveries in physics and chemistry, together with his lecturing at the Royal Institution, his work for the state, his religious beliefs and his lack of mathematical ability, make Faraday one of the most fascinating scientists ever.

All these aspects of his life and work, and others such as his illnesses, are reflected in his correspondence. This volume, in which nearly 75% of the letters are previously unpublished, covers most of the 1840s. During the early part of this period, Faraday's scientific productivity declined markedly, but in 1845 he discovered the magneto-optical effect and diamagnetism, which allowed him to argue for his views on the nature of matter. In his work for the state, Faraday conducted, with Charles Lyell, the inquiry into the Haswell Colliery disaster in 1844. Since the publication of Volume 2, Faraday's correspondence with Trinity House, previously thought destroyed, has been found. These letters illustrate the crucial role which Faraday played in the development of the lighthouse service in the middle third of the nineteenth century.

Major correspondents in this volume include the Astronomer Royal George Biddell Airy, the Irish chemist Thomas Andrews, the mathematician Charles Babbage, the Governor General of Canada Charles Bagot, the engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the philanthropist Angela Burdett Coutts, the French Chemist Jean-Baptiste-Andre Dumas, the Secretary of Trinity House Jacob Herbert, Byron's daughter Ada Lovelace, the President of the Royal Institution the Duke of Northumberland, the Prime Minister Robert Peel, the German physicist Julius Plücker, the Swiss chemist Christian Schoenbein, the natural philosopher William Thomson and the Cambridge philosopher William Whewell.

The Correspondence will be a valuable resource for historians and sociologists of science and technology, as well as historians of the nineteenth century and the industrial revolution. It will also be of great interest to electrical engineers, physicists and chemists who want to know more about one of the most eminent figures in their history.

]]>Michael Faraday (1791-1867) was one of the most important men of science in nineteenth century Britain. His discoveries of electromagnetic rotations (1821) and electro-magnetic induction (1831) laid the foundations of the modern electrical industry. His discovery of the magneto-optical effect and diamagnetism (1845) led him to formulate the field theory of electro-magnetism, which forms one of the cornerstones of modern physics.

These and a whole host of other fundamental discoveries in physics and chemistry, together with his lecturing at the Royal Institution, his work for the state, his religious beliefs and his lack of mathematical ability, make Faraday one of the most fascinating scientists ever.

All these aspects of his life and work, and others such as his illnesses, are reflected in his correspondence. This volume, in which over 70% of the letters are previously unpublished, covers most of the 1830s. During this period, Faraday pursued the consequences of his discovery of electromagnetic induction, demonstrated the identity of electricities and revised entirely the theories of electro-chemistry (in the process coining now familiar words such as electrode, cathode and ion) and the nature of electricity.

His correspondents in this volume include men and women of science (such as William Whewell, Charles Babbagc, G.B. Airy, J.D. Forbes, Joseph Henry, Alexander von Humboldt, Macedonio Melloni, Christian Schoenbein, Ada Lovelace and Mary Somerville), antiquaries (such as John Gage and Thomas Pettigrew), military and naval men (such as John Barrow, Charles Pasley and Percy Drummond), artists (such as William Wyon, H.W. Pickersgill, John Constable and John Landseer) and politicians (such as Prime Minister Lord Melbourne, Lord Holland and many members of the Holland House circle).

The Correspondence will be a valuable resource for historians and sociologists of science, as well as historians of the nineteenth century and the industrial revolution. It will also be of great interest to electrical engineers, physicists and chemists who want to know more about one of the most eminent figures in their history.

nsequences of his discovery of electromagnetic induction, demonstrated the identity of electricities and revised entirely the theories of electro-chemistry (in the process coining now familiar words such as electrode, cathode and ion) and the nature of electricity.His correspondents in this volume include men and women of science (such as William Whewell, Charles Babbagc, G.B. Airy, J.D. Forbes, Joseph Henry, Alexander von Humboldt, Macedonio Melloni, Christian Schoenbein, Ada Lovelace and Mary Somerville), antiquaries (such as John Gage and Thomas Pettigrew), military and naval men (such as John Barrow, Charles Pasley and Percy Drummond), artists (such as William Wyon, H.W. Pickersgill, John Constable and John Landseer) and politicians (such as Prime Minister Lord Melbourne, Lord Holland and many members of the Holland House circle).

The Correspondence will be a valuable resource for historians and sociologists of science, as well as historians of the nineteenth century and the industrial revolution. It will also be of great interest to electrical engineers, physicists and chemists who want to know more about one of the most eminent figures in their history.

tury and the industrial revolution. It will also be of great interest to electrical engineers, physicists and chemists who want to know more about one of the most eminent figures in their history.]]>Michael Faraday (1791-1867) was one of the most important men of science in nineteenth century Britain. His discoveries of electro-magnetic rotations (1821), and electro-magnetic induction (1831) laid the foundations of the modern electrical industry. His discovery of the magneto-optical effect and of diamagnetism (1845) led him to formulate the field theory of electro-magnetism, which forms one of the cornerstones of modern physics.

These and a whole host of other fundamental discoveries in physics and chemistry, together with his lecturing at the Royal Institution, his work for the state, his religious beliefs, his lack of mathematical ability, make Faraday one of the most fascinating scientists ever.

All the aspects of his life and work are reflected in his correspondence. Appropriately, volume one, which covers the years 1811-1831, was published in the year of the bicentenary of his birth. It contains correspondence (previously unpublished) not only with contemporary men of science (such as Davy Ampére and Herschel) but also with major figures in many other areas of early nineteenth century society.

The Correspondence is a valuable resource for historians, philosophers and sociologists of science, as well as historians of the nineteenth century and the industrial revolution. It will also be of great interest to electrical engineers, physicists and chemists who want to know more about one of the most eminent figures in the history.

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