Basic Equations of Mass Transport Through a Membrane Layer, Second Edition, has been fully updated to deliver the latest research in the field. This volume covers the essentials of compound separation, product removal, concentration, and production in the chemical, biochemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. It outlines the various membrane processes and their applications, offering a detailed mathematical description of mass transport and defining basic mass transport and concentration distribution expressions. Additionally, this book discusses the process parameters and application of the expressions developed for a variety of industrial applications. Comprehensive explanations of convective/diffusive mass transport are provided, both with and without polarization layers, that help predict and process performance and facilitate improvements to operation conditions and efficiency.

Basic Equations of Mass Transport Through a Membrane Layer is an ideal resource for engineers and technologists in the chemical, biochemical, and pharmaceutical industries, as well as researchers, professors, and students in these areas at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

Cites and analyzes mass transport equations developed for different membrane processes. Examines the effect of biochemical/chemical reactions in the presence of convective and diffusive flows in plane and cylindrical spaces. Defines the mass transfer rate for first- and zero-order reactions and analytical approaches are given for other-order reactions in closed mathematical forms. Analyzes the simultaneous convective and diffusive transports with same or different directions.]]>The opening chapters of the book discuss the underlying physical phenomena, outline some of the results obtained in natural and artificial density ducts, and describe the basic theory crucial to understanding the remainder of the book. The more specialized and complex topics dealt with in subsequent chapters include the theory of guided wave propagation along axially uniform ducts, finding the field excited by the source in the presence of a duct, excitation of guided modes, the asymptotic theory of wave propagation along axially nonuniform ducts, and mode re-emission from a duct.

The full wave theory is used throughout most of the book to ensure consistency, and the authors start with simpler cases and gradually increase the complexity of the treatment.]]>

The authors expound on non-traditional phenomena for transfer theory, which are nevertheless of considerable interest in wave measurements, and bring the advances of transfer theory as close as possible to the practical needs of those working in all areas of wave physics. The book opens with a historical overview of the topic, then moves on to examine the phenomenological theory of radiative transport, blending traditional theory with original ideas. The transport equation is derived from first principles, and the ensuing discussion of the diffraction content of the transport equation and non-classical radiometry is illustrated by practical examples from various fields of physics. Popular techniques of solving the transport equation are discussed, paying particular attention to wave physics and computing the coherence function. The book also examines various problems which are no longer covered by the traditional radiative transfer theory, such as enhanced backscattering and weak localization phenomena, nonlinear transport problems and kinetic equations for waves. This monograph bridges the gap between the simple power balance description in radiative transfer theory and modern coherence theory. It will be of interest to researchers and professionals working across a wide range of fields from optics, acoustics and radar theory to astrophysics, radioastronomy and remote sensing, as well as to students in these areas.

]]>This volume presents a comprehensive introduction to the study of nuclear structure at finite temperature. By measuring the frequencies of the high-energy photons emitted or absorbed by an atomic nucleus it is possible to visualize the structure of that nucleus. In such experiments it is observed that the atomic nucleus displays resonant behavior, absorbing or emitting photons within a relatively narrow range of frequencies. To study emission processes one measures the y-decay of compound nuclei, and by this means it is possible to probe the structure of the nucleus at finite temperature. This book is divided into two main parts: the study of giant resonances based on the atomic nucleus ground state (zero temperature), and the study of the y-decay of giant resonances from compound (finite temperature) nuclei. As this work is an outgrowth of their lectures to fourth-year students at the University of Milan, the authors have placed special emphasis on the general concepts that form the foundation of the phenomenon of giant resonances. This basic subject matter is supplemented with material taken from worl]]>

Prof. Newman is considered one of the great chemical engineers of his time. His reputation derives from his mastery of all phases of the subject matter, his clarity of thought, and his ability to reduce complex problems to their essential core elements. He has been teaching undergraduate and graduate core subject courses at the University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley), USA, since joining the faculty in 1966. His method is to write out, in long form, everything he expects to convey to his class on a subject on any given day. He has maintained and updated his lecture notes from notepad to computer throughout his career. This book is an exact reproduction of those notes.

The book presents concepts needed to define single- and multi-component systems, starting with the Gibbs function. It helps readers derive concepts of entropy and temperature and the development of material properties of pure substances. It acquaints them with applications of thermodynamics, such as cycles, open systems, and phase transitions, and eventually leads them to concepts of multiple-component systems, in particular, chemical and phase equilibria. It clearly presents all concepts that are necessary for engineers.

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