This web page is currently being updated to reflect recent changes in Canadian copyright laws, specifically the adoption of the Copyright Modernization Act. For more information on the state of copyright in Canada, see the Government of Canada’s Balanced Copyright website.
Adaptations, performances and translations of works are subject to copyright (section 3 of the Copyright Act).
Adapting copyrighted material requires permission from the owner of the original work. Reproduction or performance of an adaptation may require the permission of both the owner of the rights for the original work, and of the rights' holder for the adapted work.
Permission to translate substantial portions of a work must be obtained from the owner of the original work. Translations also are considered original works and are protected by copyright. This is true even if the original work has become part of the public domain. Reproduction or performance of a translation may require the permission of both the owner of the rights for the original work, and owner of the rights for the adapted work.
A special exception (article 29.5), permits educational institutions to use copyrighted materials in order to:
This exception applies: