The URL (Uniform Resource Locator or Web address) that appears in Internet Explorer's or another Web browser's address box, when an online article is viewed, is usually intended to be temporary and often does not function a few days or weeks later. Links designated as "permanent", "persistent" or "stable" are designed specifically to remain active and useable over time.
The goal of this guide is to help you to locate permanent links to individual online articles, particularly to those contained in journals Concordia University Libraries subscribe to.
Most frequently used permanent link is the Digital Object Identifier (DOI). A DOI is a standardized method for identifying an electronic object. A more detailed explanation is available.
DOI's often appear in the citation or the abstract of an article or even in its full-text format.
To convert a DOI to a Web address add the following URL to the DOI:
Therefore the above example becomes:
Some database providers (ex: EBSCO, ProQuest, etc.) and publishers (ex: American Institute of Physics (AIP)) provide their own permanent links to articles in formats different from DOIs. These can often be found with the citation information for an article, as in the example below.
Example of an EBSCO (Academic Search Premier) permanent link:
Please see our list of Journal Publishers & Database Providers with Alternative Permanent/Stable Links.
NOTE - When given the choice, linking to a journal via its publisher is usually more reliable than via a database provider with full-text access to this journal. This is because database providers, which will give access to journals of many publishers (ex: EBSCO), sometimes remove full-text access to journals from their databases. Exceptions are JSTOR and Project MUSE, databases which are both intended as repositories/archives for a selection of scholarly journals by many publishers.
When providing a permanent link to an article, it is necessary to consider how the article is made accessible:
For #2 you will not have to worry about modifying the link, but for #1 (for resources that require payed subscriptions) you will need to add the Libraries' server address, also called a proxy, to the permanent link you locate if you want to make it accessible outside of the University campus to Concordia students faculty and staff.
The Libraries' proxy allows an electronic journal provider or publisher to recognize whoever is trying to access online content as a Concordia University affiliate. Anyone with a university ID & Library PIN will be allowed access.
For example, the EBSCO permanent link shown above would not function outside of Concordia University's campus without a proxy because EBSCO's Academic Search Premier is not a free database.
The following is the syntax for a link containing the proxy:
Permanent link without proxy:
Permanent link with proxy:
The first step to finding a permanent link to an article is locating it full-text online.
If you have located a full-text article in electronic format and were not able to find its DOI, try the following tool.
If you are having difficulty locating a permanent link please see our list of Journal Publishers & Database Providers with Alternative Permanent/Stable Links.
If you have located a DOI or other permanent link follow these steps to complete the link.