On this page
- What is Open Access?
- Open Access & scholarly publishing
- Open Access & predatory publishers
- Further information about Open Access
What is Open Access?
"Open-access literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder." (Peter Suber, A Very Brief Introduction to Open Access)
Open Access initiatives take advantage of modern communications technology to make relevant and up-to-date scholarly information more accessible and affordable to the public worldwide. As a result, Open Access publications enjoy a wider audience. Studies in many fields show a correlation between Open Access publication and increase in citation-count.
Open Access initiatives also acknowledge the public's right to access the findings of research that is paid for by their taxes. Many major publicly-funded granting agencies (for example the US National Institutes of Health, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and the National Research Council) have adopted Open Access policies requiring that the results of funded research be made freely available in an Open Access repository.
Open Access and Scholarly Publishing
Open Access is a mechanism to promote the availability of peer-reviewed scholarly research. Authors who wish to make their work Open Access can do so by following one of two paths:
- GREEN Road: Authors can publish in any journal they choose and then deposit a version of their work in a repository, such as Spectrum. Most publishers allow authors to self-archive a version of their work in a repository (typically not the publisher's PDF), however, some publishers impose an embargo period. The Sherpa/Romeo database can be used to verify a journal's self-archiving policy.
- GOLD Road: Authors can publish in a fully Open Access journal or in a subscription journal that has an Open Access option (for a fee).
Open Access and predatory publishers
Open Access Journals have become a popular and beneficial method of scholarly communication but this structure leaves room for publishers to implement unethical practices and take advantage of authors. These are known as predatory publishers. They abuse the Open Access Gold Model in which the author pays for the publication of their article.
These publishers tend to campaign aggressively for academics to submit articles, charge authors high fees (often hidden at first) but do not offer sufficient quality control or thorough editorial process. Many of them accept papers without an appropriate editorial board or peer review process, often including works with poor writing and low-quality content.
These sub-standard articles can reflect poorly upon high quality research papers that are displayed alongside them. They can also offer scholars incorrect or misleading information upon which they might build their research, weakening scholarly communication and research as a whole.
How to Recognize Predatory Publishing
It is easy for an author to be tempted by a predatory publisher because of the pressure to publish that researchers face and the accelerated pace of acceptance these journals offer. It is important for scholars to learn where it is safe to publish and which journals might be predatory.
- The publisher sends you an un-solicited invitation to submit an article for publication
- A journal title or website that looks very similar to a reputable journal or publisher (known as a hijacked journal)
- The location given has no relationship to the journal’s actual address
- No information about the credentials of the editorial staff is given
- Publishers accept papers on a very wide range of subjects (mega journals)
- A publisher promises an accelerated editorial process.
- Minimal (or non-existent) peer review process and copy-editing
How to avoid predatory publishers
- Check to see if the journal is in the Directory of Open Access Journals which reviews the quality of the journals it includes.
- Check to see if the publisher a member of the Open Access Scholarly Publisher's Association (OASPA) or the Committee on Publichation Ethics (COPE)
- Search to see if the journal is indexed in a major database. The journal may say it is, but check to make sure.
- A journal may indicate an impact factor on their website, but check Journal Citation Reports or SJR (SCIMago Journal and Country Rankings) to see if the journal has a legitimate impact factor.
- If you can't submit your article without first transferring your copyright, investigate the journal further.
- Predatory journals may require payment of an article processing charge (APC) before your article is accepted. Note that most legitimate Open Access journals charge APC's only upon acceptance.
- If you need assistance, or have doubts, contact your subject librarian.
Find out more
Further information about Open Access
- Peter Suber, Open Access Overview
- Budapest Open Access Initiative
- Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing
- Greater Reach for Your Research: Resources for Authors - The Canadian Association of Research Libraries' web page on important resources for authors about institutional repositories, copyright, etc.
- SPARC - News and resources from an international alliance of academic and research libraries working to correct imbalances in the scholarly publishing system.
- Open Access Directory - A wiki with factual lists of Open Access resources
- OASIS (Open Access Scholarly Information Sourcebook) - Highlights Open Access developments and initiatives from around the world, with links to diverse additional resources and case studies.