Turabian citation style
On this page
- Parenthetical references
- Reference List - General guidelines
- Works cited - Examples
- Book, Single Author
- Book, Two Authors
- Book, More than Three Authors
- Institution or Organization as Author
- Editor or Compiler as Author
- Author's Work Contained in Collected Works
- Edition Other than First
- Component Part by One Author in a Work by Another
- Secondary Source of Quotation
- Article in a Journal
- Article in a Magazine or Newspaper
- Online Journal Article
- Book Review in a Journal
- Thesis or Dissertation
- Web Sites
- Films and Videorecordings
- Works of Art Reproduced in Books
The purpose of this guide is to provide students with a basic introduction to citation style for social sciences term papers. It is based on the 7th edition of Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007).
Two forms of citation are permitted by Turabian, the traditional method of footnotes with a bibliography and the now generally favoured method of parenthetical references with a reference list at the end of the paper.
This guide follows the parenthetical reference method. Titles of works cited may be italicized or underlined.
This guide uses italics for titles.
PDF version of this guide
In the parenthetical reference system recommended in this guide, authors' names, date of publication and page number(s) are given in parentheses within the running text or at the end of block quotations, and correspond to a list of works cited which is placed at the end of the paper.
- Parenthetical reference following a quotation (example):
- The color blue became more prominent in the eighteenth century (Pastoureau 2001, 124).
- Parenthetical reference within a sentence (example):
- While one school claims that "material culture may be the most objective source of information we have concerning America’s past" (Deetz 1996, 259), others disagree.
- Parenthetical reference when the author is mentioned in the sentence (example):
- Chang then describes the occupation of Nanking in great detail (1997, 159-67).
Reference List - General guidelines
This list is arranged alphabetically by author's last names and chronologically within lists of works by a single author. It can be called "References," "Works Cited," or "Literature Cited."
The following sets of examples illustrate parenthetical-reference (PR) forms and corresponding reference-list (RL) entries. Further samples are found in the Turabian Manual, Chapter 18.
Book, Single Author
|PR:||(Franklin 1985, 54)|
Franklin, John Hope. 1985. George Washington Williams: A biography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Book, Two Authors
|PR:||(Lynd and Lynd 1929, 67)|
Lynd, Robert, and Helen Lynd. 1929. Middletown: A study in American culture. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.
More than Three Authors
|PR:||(Greenberger et al. 1974, 50)|
Greenberger, Martin, Julius Aronofsky, James L. McKenney, and William F. Massey, eds. 1974. Networks for research and education: Sharing of computer and information resources nationwide. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Institution or Organization as "Author"
|PR:||(American Library Association 1978, 25)|
American Library Association, Young Adult Services Division, Services Statement Development Committee. 1978. Directions for library service to young adults. Chicago: American Library Association.
Editor or Compiler as "Author"
|PR:||(von Halberg 1984, 225)|
von Halberg, Robert, ed. 1984. Canons. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Author's Work Contained in Collected Works
|PR:||(Coleridge 1884, 18)|
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. 1884. The complete works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Edited by W.G.T. Shedd. Vol.1, Aids to reflection. New York: Harper and Bros.
Edition Other than First
|PR:||(Daniels 2002, 84)|
Daniels, Roger. 2002. Coming to America: A history of immigration and ethnicity in American life. 2nd ed. New York: Harper Perennial.
Component Part by One Author in a Work by Another
|PR:||(Beech 1982, 115)|
Beech, Mary Higdon. 1982. The domestic realm in the lives of Hindu women in Calcutta. In Separate worlds: Studies of purdah in South Asia, ed. Hanna Papanek and Gail Minault, 110-138. Delhi: Chanakya.
Secondary Source of Quotation
Barthes, Roland. 1968. "La mort de l'auteur" (The death of the author). Manteia, vol. 5. Translated by Stephen Heath in Image/music/text. New York: Hill and Wang, 1977, 147. Quoted in Wayne C. Booth. Critical understanding: The powers and limits of pluralism, 372-373, n. 9. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.
Article in a Journal
|PR:||(Jackson 1979, 180)|
Jackson, Richard. 1979. Running down the up-escalator: Regional inequality in Papua New Guinea. Australian Geographer 14 (May): 175-84.
Article in a Magazine or Newspaper
|PR:||(Weber 1985, 42)|
Weber, Bruce. 1985. The myth maker: The creative mind of novelist E.L. Doctorow. New York Times Magazine, 20 October, 42.
Online Journal Article
McFarland, Daniel A.2004. Resistance as social drama: A study of change-oriented encounters. American Journal of Sociology 109, no.6 (May) http://www.press.uchicago.edu/ucp/journals/journal/ajs.html (accessed May 3, 2006).
Book Review in a Journal
|PR:||(Frankfather 1985, 524)|
Frankfather, Dwight. 1985. Review of The disabled state, by Deborah A. Stone. In Social Service Review 59 (September): 523-25.
Thesis or Dissertation
|PR:||(Artioli 1985, 10)|
Artioli, Gilberto. 1985. Structural studies of the water molecules and hydrogen bonding in zeolites. Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago.
|PR:||(Hamilton Public Library Board 2012)|
Hamilton Public Library Board 2012. Strategic Priorities, 2012-2016: Freedom to Discover. Hamilton Public Library. http://www.hpl.ca/articles/strategic-priorities-2012-2016 (accessed April 2016).
Films and Videorecordings
Perlman, Itzak. 1985. Itzak Perlman: In my case music. Produced and directed by Tony DeNonno. 10 min. DeNonno Pix. Videocassette.
Works of Art Reproduced in Books
|PR:||(Nast 1967, plate 52)|
Nast, Thomas. 1967. The Tammany tiger loose: "What are you going to do about it." Cartoon. Harper's Weekly, 11 November 1871. As reproduced in J. Chal Vinson, Thomas Nast: Political cartoonist, plate 52. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press.