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APA citation style

Quotations

Direct quotations of sources

Direct quotations allow you to acknowledge a source within your text by providing a reference to exactly where in that source you found the information. The reader can then follow up on the complete reference in the Reference List page at the end of your paper.

Short direct quotations
  • Quotations of less than 40 words should be incorporated in the text and enclosed with double quotation marks. Provide the author, publication year and a page number.
    She stated, "The 'placebo effect,' ...disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner" (Miele, 1993, p. 276), but he did not clarify which behaviors were studied.

    Miele (1993) found that "the 'placebo effect,' which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when [only the first group's] behaviors were studied in this manner" (p. 276).
Long direct quotations
  • When making a quotation of more than 40 words, use a free-standing "block quotation" on a new line, indented five spaces and omit quotation marks.
    Miele (1993) found the following:
    The "placebo effect," which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited, even when reel [sic] drugs were administered. Earlier studies were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (p. 276)

Further examples and explanations are available in Section 6.03 of the Publication Manual.

page last updated on: Friday 17 November 2017
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